- Provides support against free-radical or oxidative damage to tissue cells*
- Regenerates antioxidants after they have neutralized free radicals*
- Supports healthy aging, cardiovascular function, and immune system function*
- It focuses the power of antioxidants.
- Maximizes the capacity of antioxidants to keep cells from free-radical injury.*
- Uses AnthoRedoxin blend, featuring the concentrated power of natural fruit, vegetable, and green-tea based antioxidants.*
The redox-coupled antioxidants in Cyto-Redoxin are formulated to minimize oxidation and maintain antioxidants in the beneficial, reduced form for maximum cellular protection.* "Redox-coupled" simply means that the antioxidants in the formula are easily recycled by the body into their active state to better keep cell structures.*
2 capsules contain:
Vitamin A 10,000IU (200%DV)
---(as Natural Beta-Carotene with Mixed Carotenoids)
Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) 500mg (833% DV)
Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopheryl succinate) 100IU (333% DV)
Zinc (as L-OptiZinc) 7.5mg (50% DV)
Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine) 100mcg (143% DV)
AnthoRedoxin (Min. 10% Anthocyanins) (500mg) of:
---Beet Root (Beta vulgaris)
---Bilberry Berry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract
---Black Currant Fruit (Ribes nigrum)
---European Elder Berry (Sambucus nigra) Extract
NAC (N-Acetyl L-Cysteine) 150mg
Alpha-Lipoic Acid 50mg
Green Tea Leaf Extract (Decaffeinated) 40mg
---(Camellia sinensis) (65% Total Catechins)
Natural Coenzyme Q10 (trans-CoQ10) 25mg
---(ubiquinone 10) (derived from yeast fermentation)
Other Ingredients: gelatin capsule (gelatin and water), ascorbyl palmitate, microcrystalline cellulose, and soybean oil.
Contains NO: sugar, salt, yeast, wheat, gluten, corn, dairy products, artificial coloring, artificial flavoring, or preservatives. This product contains natural ingredients; color variations are normal.
Adults: Take 1 or 2 capsules twice daily between meals or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
If pregnant, nursing, or taking prescription drugs, consult your healthcare practitioner prior to use. Keep out of the reach of children.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the body as byproducts of normal metabolism. ROS oxidize lipids, causing cellular damage.(1) In healthy bodies, ROS are kept in balance by natural antioxidant defenses produced in the body and obtained from the diet.(1) Free radicals, a type of ROS, are molecules, or even a single atom, that have an unpaired electron. These highly reactive, unstable entities attack molecules in order to regain the appropriate number of electrons and re-establish stability. However, in the process, the attacked molecules themselves become free radicals, thereby initiating a potentially damaging chain reaction. Antioxidants play a critical role in the prevention and elimination of ROS.(2)*
Free radical production naturally occurs in the body as a normal and essential component of cellular metabolism. Mitochondria are the major source of intracellular free radicals. Approximately 2-5 percent of oxygen used for aerobic metabolism in the mitochondria is converted to oxygen free radicals.(3) Some free radicals are formed in response to the entry of foreign molecules, or xenobiotics. They are also involved in the up-regulation of certain genes, vasodilation, and neurotransmission.(4)
Most antioxidants protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) only while in a reduced state. Donating electrons to neutralize free radicals and other ROS shifts the state of these antioxidants from reduced to oxidized.(5) In the oxidized state, antioxidants are no longer able to perform their beneficial antioxidant functions. Redox refers to the reversible reaction that can occur between the reduced and oxidized forms of molecules such as antioxidants.6 Redox-coupled antioxidants are ones that can safely donate or receive electrons from one another and thus recycle oxidized antioxidant molecules back to their beneficial reduced state.(5,6) In healthy cells, redox-coupled antioxidants work together to maintain each other in the reduced form, which is optimal for antioxidant function. Redox-coupling between antioxidants effectively increases their antioxidant capacity.
Vitamin A can enhance the bioavailability of selenium.(7)* Beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, along with several other carotenoids, is an antioxidant and free radical fighter.(8-11)* It has been hypothesized that in vivo carotenoids may help protect tocopherols in their reduced state.(7)
The most important water-soluble biological antioxidant, vitamin C scavenges reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.(12)* Ascorbic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and oxidative protein damage.(13,14)* Vitamin C also helps redox recycle oxidized vitamin E back to its reduced form for additional antioxidant potential.(12)*
A powerful free radical scavenger, vitamin E halts the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation in biological membranes.(1,15)* Vitamin E tocopherols are most effective at quenching peroxyl and phenoxyl radicals but can also quench nitrogen oxide species.(16)*
Supplementation with zinc has been shown to lower the byproducts of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxyalkenals (HAE), and 8-hydroxy deooxyguanine (8-OHdG) generated by cells and released into the plasma.(17) Zinc also inhibits interleukin-1a and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF- a), two compounds that play an important role in the bodys anti-inflammatory response.(17)*
Selenium is an essential trace element that is crucial to the defense against reactive oxygen species and the regulation of the redox state of cells.(18,19)* Protects blood vessels from oxidative damage.(20)*
AnthoRedoxin‚ĄĘ beet root, bilberry, black currant, elder berry: Anthocyanins are responsible for the dark blues and reds of many fruits and vegetables. As one class of plant flavonoids, anthocyanins bolster tissue antioxidant levels and protect DNA integrity.(21)* Anthocyanins are also associated with reducing the oxidative stress of aging and supporting the bodys anti-inflammatory response.(21)* In addition, anthocyanins have been demonstrated to promote normal vascular tone, blood flow, and vasoprotection.(21,22)* Anthocyanins have been shown to redox recycle glutathione from its oxidized state (GSSG) back to its beneficial reduced form (GSH).(23)*
N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC): A form of the amino acid cysteine; enhances the production of the enzyme glutathione, a powerful cellular antioxidant; supports healthy immune functioning; supports healthy liver functioning; supports healthy mucous production; antioxidant activity.(24)*
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA): An antioxidant and vital cofactor necessary for the production of cellular energy, ALA helps redox recycle other important antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, CoQ10, and glutathione.(25)* ALA is both fat-soluble and water soluble, which means it can work in all parts of cells to quench free-radicals.(26)* Also helps maintain healthy blood flow and healthy heart contractions.(25)*
Green tea has been shown in research studies to both increase the activity of antioxidant production systems (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme), as well as protect lipids and proteins from oxidation.* Green tea has also shown COX-2 inhibition and support for healthy cell replication and development.(27,28)*
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been identified as an essential component of mitochondrial electron transport chains, which are responsible for cellular energy.(29)* CoQ10s redox capacity allows it to also function as a membrane bound antioxidant and thus spare a-tocopherol in subcellular membranes.(29,30)* As a powerful free radical scavenger, CoQ10 has been clinically shown support cardiac and arterial health.(30,31)*
1. Hultman E, Harris RC, Spriet LL. Peroxidative Modification of Lipids. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shine M, Ross AC, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999: 79-81.
2. Vincent HK, Bourguignon CM, Vincent KR, Weltman AL, Bryant M, Taylor AG. Antioxidant supplementation lowers exercise-induced oxidative stress in young overweight adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:2224-35.
3. Rodrigo R, Guichard C, Charles R. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use of antioxidant vitamins. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21:111-27.
4. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007;297:842-57.
5. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M. Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35.
6. Sies H, Stahl W. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Dec;62(6 Suppl):1315S-1321S.
7. Combs, GF. Vitamin A. In: The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008: 95-143.
8. Berdanier CD, Everts HB, Hermoyian C, Mathews CE. Role of vitamin A in mitochondrial gene expression. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001;54:S11-27.
9. Bates CJ. Vitamin A. Lancet. 1995;345:31-35.
10. Ross AC. Vitamin A and retinoids. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shine M, Ross AC, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:305-328.
11. Everts HB, Claassen DO, Hermoyian CL, Berdanier CD. Nutrient-gene interaction: dietary vitamin A and mitochondrial gene expression. IUBMB Life. 2002;6:295-301.
12. Combs, GF. Vitamin C. In: The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008: 235-263.
13. Brubacher D, Moser U, Jordan P. Vitamin C concentrations in plasma as a function of intake: a meta analysis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70:226-37.
14. Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E. Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals. FEBS J. 2007;274:1-22.
15. Wu JH, Ward NC, Indrawan AP, Almeida CA, Hodgson JM, Proudfoot JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherol supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Clin Chem. 2007;53:511-9.
16. Combs, GF. Vitamin E. In: The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008: 181-212.
17. Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med. 2008 May-Jun;14 (5-6):353 7.
18. Scheurig AC, Thorand B, Fischer B, Heier M, Koenig W. Association between the intake of vitamins and trace elements from supplements and C-reactive protein: results of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21.
19. Peters U, Foster CB, Chatterjee N, Schatzkin A, Reding D, Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Sturup S, Chanock SJ, Hayes RB. Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer-a nested case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:209-17.
20. Fleming T., ed. Selenium. In: PDR¬ for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001: 416-422.
21. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, 1 p preceding 75.
22. Matsunaga N, Chikaraishi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Extracts Reduce Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Oct 27
23. Ohlenschlager G, Treusch G. Reduced glutathione and anthocyanins: redox cycling and redox recycling in biological systems. Praxis-Telegramm. 1994;6:1-20.
24. Fleming T., ed. Acetylcysteine. In: PDR¬ for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001:11-14.
25. Fleming T., ed. Alpha-Lipoic Acid. In: PDR¬ for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001: 17-22.
26. Alpha-lipoic acid. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2006 Sep;11(3):232-7.
27. Noreen Y, Serrano G, Perera P, et al. Flavan-3-ols isolated from some medicinal plants inhibiting COX-1 and COX-2 catalysed by prostaglandin biosynthesis. Planta Med. 1998 Aug;64(6):520-4.
28. Luczaj W, Waszkiewicz E, Skrzydlewska E, Roszkowska-Jakimiec W. Green tea protection against age-dependent ethanol-induced oxidative stress. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67(7):595-606
29. Combs, GF. VI. Ubiquinones. In: The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008: 420-421.
30. DiPalma JR, Ritchie DM, McMichael RF. Cardiovascular and antiarrhythmic effects of carnitine. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1975;217:246-50.
31. Fleming T., ed. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) In: PDR¬ for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001: 103-6.
Distributed by an FDA-registered Drug Establishment.
L-OptiZinc is a registered trademark of InterHealth Nutraceuticals, Inc. AnthoRedoxin is our exclusive blend of anthocyanins.
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These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.