The unit of energy available from food is called calories. The metabolism of the macronutrients carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply these calories. However, the body can not use these calories as a source of energy to perform life sustaining functions unless these calories are converted to a substance called ATP, which is the energy currency used by the body.
About one-half of the calories obtained from food are used to maintain body temperature and body water in a state essential for normal enzymatic activities and cell membrane fluidity. Therefore, 50% of the calories ingested are converted to ATP and the other half is used to pay a form to taxation in order to keep body temperature in the ideal range.
In order to convert food to ATP and use ATP as a source of energy, several micronutrients are required: Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. There is a close interaction and synergism between these micronutrients. For example, the B-complex vitamins, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin and pyridoxine cannot function well without being activated by phosphorilation. This phosphorilation is magnesium dependant. Therefore, adequate magnesium is required to optimize the performance of the B-complex vitamins.
The synthesis of ATP by intact respiring mitochondria requires the presence of oxygen, magnesium, ADP, inorganic phosphate, and the substrates from the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. The generation of these substrates depends on the presence of adequate amount of vitamins, minerals and trace elements. When all substances are presenting optimal concentrations, the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane and the capacity of the enzymatic system in the respiratory chain become rate limiting. (1)
Rationale for the use of ATP Cofactors:
As previously discussed, ATP is the universal currency of energy used in biological systems to maintain an organism in a state that is far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the environment, that is far from death. The active from of ATP is a complex of ATP with mainly magnesium, but also with manganese. In case of manganese deficiency, magnesium can replace manganese. The turnover of ATP is extremely high. For example, a human at rest consumes one half of his/her weight of ATP daily.
The synthesis of ATP from ADP plus high energy phosphate group is called oxidative phosphorilation and is dependant on the electron flow through the electron transport chain via electron carriers (2). NADH and FADH2 are the major electron carriers in the synthesis of ATP. The B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, are the precursors of the Cofactors NADH and FADH2. These Cofactors play an important role also in the oxidation and organification of iodide by generating hydrogen peroxide via the NADPH oxydase system. (3,4)
In some conditions, the body cannot efficiently synthesized NADH and FADH3 from Niacin and Riboflavin because of defect/damage to the enzymes involved in this conversion (5-8). More Riboflavin and Niacin are needed to override the inefficient enzymes in order to obtain adequate levels of Cofactors. Evidence for a deficient organification of iodide was recently reported in a female subject with Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue (3) Preliminary results in this subject and others suggest that high dosage of vitamins B-2 and B-3 combined with 100-150mg of elemental iodine in the form of Lugol tablets resulted in a significant improvement of overall well being in these subjects.(3,4)
ATP Cofactors should be used as part of a complete nutritional program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium for best results (9-12).
1. Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Management of Fibromyaligia: Rational for the use of Magnesium and Malic Acid, Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 3:49-59, 1992
2. Biochemistry, 2nd edition. Stryer and Lubert (ed.) Freeman, New York, 1975; 240-246
3. Abraham, Guy E., J.D. Flechas, Evidence of Defective Cellular Oxidation and Organification of Iodide in a Female with Fybromulagia and Chronic Fatigue. The Original Internist, 14:77-82, 2007
4. Figueiredo, Marcia D.L, Cardoso, L.C., Ferreira, A.C.F. et al. Goiter and Hypothyroidism in Two Siblings due to impaired Ca+2/NAD(P)H-Dependent H2O2-Generating Activity. J Cin Endocrinol Metab, 86(10) 4843-4848, 2001.
5. Niepomniszcze H., Targovnik, H.M., Gluzman, B.E., et al Abnormal H2O2 Supply in the Thyroid of a patient with Golter and Iodine Organification Defect. J. Clin. Endocr. & Metab, 65(2):344-348, 1987.
6. J.C., Bikker. H, Kempers, M.J.E., et al. Inactivating Mutations in the Gene for Thyroid Oxidase 2 (THOX2) and Congenital Hypothyroidism N Engl J Med, Vol 347, No. 2-2002. Moreno
7. Kusakabe, T., Deficient Cytochrome b5 Reductase Activity in Nontoxic Goiter with Iodide Organification Defect Metabolism. 24(10):1103-1113, 1975.
8. Goei, G.S. Abraham, G.E., Effect of Nutritional Supplement, Optivite , on Symptoms of Premenstrual Tension., J. Rep. Med.
9. Chakmakjian, Z.H., Higgins, C.E., Abraham, G.E., Effect of Nutritional Supplement, Optivite, on Symptoms of Premenstrual Tension, using double blind crossover design. J. Appl. Nut, 37:12, 1985.
10. Abraham, G.E., Rumley, R.E., The Role of Nutrition in Managing the Premenstrual Tension Syndromes. J. Rep. Med. 32:405. 1987.
11. Abraham, G.E., Grewal, H., A Total Dietary Program Emphasizing Magnesium Instead of Calcium Effect on Density of Calcaneous Bone in Postmenopausal Women on Hormonal Therapy. J. Rep. Med., 35:503, 1990.
12. Abraham, G.E., The Importance of Magnesium in the Management of Primary Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. J. Nut. Med., 2:165-178, 1991.
Each tablet contains:
Niacin (as inositol hexanicotinate) 500mg
Other Ingredients: microsolle (silica-based excipient), microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, pharmaceutical glaze.
Contains NO: sugars, starch, corn antigens, dairy products, wheat, yeast, fish oil, kelp, artificial flavors or preservatives.
Adults: Take 1 to 3 tablets per day or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
If you are pregnant or nursing, please consult your healthcare professional before using this product. Keep out of the reach of children.
The flushing associated with niacin is avoided by using a non flushing derivative of niacin. The Urine turns dark yellow due to the excretion of Riboflavin and may stain undergarment in subjects with urinary incontinence.
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